Fashion Illustrators

Jason Brooks

Fashion illustrator Jason Brooks is known for his digital and free hand illustrations, which have been adopted by a wide variety of luxury brands. Brooks often works by creating drawings and paintings by hand which he then scans into Photoshop, and manipulates digitally, in order to arrive at flawless finished images. He has experience in a range of areas including advertising campaigns, live events, editorial illustrations, portraits, storyboards, publishing, licensing, packaging and animation.

Brooks is also known for his travel publications such as “Paris Sketchbook” and “London Sketchbook,” in which he expresses his love for these cities and their style. Jason’s work has been, and continues to be, exhibited in London’s Victoria & Albert museum – some of his work has even made the permanent collection.

info from  https://www.thenandnowshop.com/blog/fashion/interviews/jason-brooks-artist-and-illustrator/

Jacqueline Bissett

 

Jacqueline Bissett goes horseback riding for fun, uses yoga to beat stress, works while her kids are in bed, and keeps the world of fashion happy using the classic lines of her incredible figurative illustrations. She also loves all-night clubbing, house music and is inspired by the colourful characters of Brighton’s gay scene.

Studying fashion design at the Bourneville School of Art for two years, Jacqueline then moved to the Epsom College of Art and Design where she did the Fashion, Promotion and Illustration course. She began working in Lynne Robinson’s studio before she’d even graduated, gaining commissions from a range of women’s weekly magazines.

Info from   http://www.illustrationweb.com/au/artists/JacquelineBissett/all/418

 

Victorian – Historical Furniture

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During the Industrial Revolution, the middle classes were able to increase their prosperity and for the first time invest in the decor and design of their homes. The period between 1837 and 1901, the reign of Queen Victoria of the British Empire, saw the cheap mass-production of countless household items, making them accessible to people who could never have afforded them before. This was the first style of furniture to be mass-produced.

The furniture of this period was made for an ever-increasing middle class population. Large families and lavish entertainment produced a greater need for furniture. Rooms had to be crowded with furniture. As a result the typical Victorian item was a reproduction of something from an earlier period, such as Victorian Gothic and Renaissance Revival. The Victorian age furniture draws its influence from gothic forms with heavy proportions, dark finish, elaborate carving, and ornamentation. Victorian age furniture has a strong Rococo and Louis XV influence. Exaggerated curves, lush upholstery and decorative carvings are featured.

The early part of this period saw machines beginning to replace hand labor, the beginning of the industrial age. This period created a large gap between the designer and the craftsmen. The factories had changed, the designers no longer had direct contact with the customer. The demand for furniture was high, the factories were manufacturing at a fast pace, and a frantic rush for the designers to keep ahead of each other created poor quality design.

The new machines were introduced to take away from man the back braking jobs and speed up manufacture. They soon began to take over most of the work and the furniture started to be designed around what the machine could make, therefore the quality of design declined. At this stage circular saws, planers and band saws were introduced. Many machines were horse driven, water driven or even man powered.

Late in the Victorian era, the Arts and Crafts Movement revolted against the mass-produced furniture and other goods that had flooded the country. The argued for a return to the traditions of the artisans and craftsmen of the past and of Japan, which up to then had remained isolated from Western industrial influence.

By 1901, the Arts and Crafts Movement had merged into the international Art Nouveau style.

Main Features of Victorian Furniture:

  • Different types of pattern – intricate carvings with natural images like floral patterns, leafy patterns and curving lines. It is quite similar with Art Nouveau, but Victorian can be further determined by its angular shapes and lines along with the carvings.
  • Chair arms and legs – Chair arms are curved outward. The legs are typically round, restrained cabriole, or elaborate turning.
  • Various material used – embellishments in various form like embossing, tassels and layers of material. This type of furniture gives that extra attention to texture and details.
  • Upholstery – plush and concentrated on luxurious material and textures like velvet. The colors used were dark, rich and lush. Using different colors of different shades and patterns usually accented backgrounds which were plain white.
  • Finish – used oil varnish or gilding. Oil varnish is used to emphasize the grain of the wood while gilding offers a “gold leaf” appearance.
  • Wood – furniture was made of many different types of wood, including: ash, black walnut, butternut, maple, oak, and rosewood veneer.

References:

http://theredlist.com/wiki-2-18-392-891-view-19th-century-profile-6-english-victorian-1837-1901.html

http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/v/victorian-furniture-styles/

http://www.ehow.com/list_7233092_characteristics-victorian-furniture.html

http://www.victorian-era.org/victorian-furniture.html

Colonial furniture

Early American Furniture History : Colonial Period

Heading for the New World with high hopes and dreams of a better life, the early American settlers found themselves in wild, unclaimed country that they made their home. They brought little in the way of furniture or possessions, and built rough, rudimentary shacks. Early American furniture for the most part consisted of a few benches, perhaps a trestle table, and mattresses on the floor.

Trestle Table
Trestle Table

Bit by bit, they began to make their homes more comfortable, and the tradition of early American furniture was born. Finding virgin forests of maple, cherry, oak and other native trees, the early American pioneers were able to use the finest quality wood for their furniture, unlike their European counterparts who were already beginning to feel the effects of deforestation.

Hand Made Early Style

Much of the early American furniture, such as colonial beds, was handmade by the settlers themselves, although skilled cabinetmakers also found their way to the New World. Early American furniture from this period tended to copy the Jacobean and Carolean styles in England: heavy and solid, with straight simple lines and little fuss or ornamentation.

1684 Interior
Parlor or living room in the John Ward house, formerly on land occupied by the Salem Jail and removed to the garden of the Essex Institute. Built in 1684.

These homemade pieces of furniture were made from sheer necessity, but many of them were also made with love. Many early American settlers tried their hands at low-relief carving. Furniture was carved with simple patterns. One of the most popular of these was the maple leaf motif.

Hearth

Colonial Fireplace, 1750
Colonial Fireplace, 1750.

Typically, life in the days of the early American settlers revolved around the fireplace – the only source of warmth in those bitter winters without any kind of heating system. Any type of furniture that provided a shield from the draught was popular, such as wing-backed chairs and hooded cradles.

Late 17th Century Cradle at Plymouth
Late 17th Century Cradle & Turned Chair at Plymouth.

A Heritage of Fine Wood

Early American furniture is extremely popular with collectors of antiques. One of the reasons for this is the excellent quality of the wood used during this era of unlimited, untamed forests. Woods commonly in use included maple, cherry, walnut and oak.

Maple wood is strong and durable, and is not harmed by such working techniques as steam bending. And being a hard wood, maple can be brought to a highly polished finish. All of this made maple furniture an excellent choice for the early American pioneers, as they began to add comfort to their rudimentary shack homes.

Cherry is a medium density wood with a fine grain and smooth texture. It is easy to work with, and can be bent easily. It is not as durable as maple, but produces an attractive finish. It was also a popular choice for early American furniture makers.

Oak, like maple, is a heavy and durable wood. The early American pioneers used both white oak and red oak. White oak is particularly suitable for casks as it is impermeable to liquids.

Gov. Carver's chair
Gov. Carver’s chair, Plymouth.

Walnut is a darker, medium density wood; usually straight-grained but can also have a wavy or curly grain that is attractive. With polish, it has a rich patina, and this improves with age. It can be easily worked with hand tools.

Antiques and Reproductions

Genuine early American antique furniture is much sought after. The quality of the wood and the quality of the craftsmanship make it superior in many ways to European antiques of the same era. However, demand exceeds supply, and early American antique furniture is expensive and often hard to find. Many home makers content themselves with finding one or two valuable pieces, and supplementing them with good reproductions of early American furniture. Reproduction furniture is made, often by hand, in the same style and uses the same woods as the genuine antiques, thereby blending in well and creating an attractive decor effect in which history and comfort both have their part.

Early American furniture | Britannica.com

Early American furniture, furniture made in the last half of the 17th century by American colonists. The earliest known American-made furniture dates from the mid-17th century, when life in the colonies was becoming increasingly settled. Many of these early pieces were massive in size and were based on styles recalled from earlier days in England. In general, furniture styles followed those of England, with adaptations, after an interval of about 15 years. Instead of shaped legs or feet, American case furniture had legs and feet that were simply downward extensions of the rectangular styles. Decoration consisted of carved flower motifs or lunettes (crescent shapes) and chip carved (executed with mallet and chisel) scrolls and leaves, occasionally highlighted by painting, mainly in black, red, and yellow; but the carving was flatter, less finished, and more primitive than its English predecessors. Turned (shaped on a lathe) split balusters stained to look like ebony were also applied. Joinery was confined to simple rectangular panelling with mortise and tenon joints. Oak and pine were the commonest woods.

In view of the still-unsettled existence of the early colonists, chests assumed particular importance because of their portability. The Connecticut and Hadley chests were clearly variants, their carved leaf, flower, and vine ornament bearing a marked Dutch flavour. Important, too, in wealthier households, was the court cupboard for storing utensils and the press cupboard for storing clothes and linen. Trestle tables, which could be dismantled easily, were in everyday use; and the stretcher tables—large rectangular tables with turned baluster legs joined by stretchers—served as dining or centre tables among better furnishings. Joint stools (small rectangular stools with four turned legs joined with stretchers) were the commonest form of seating, but Brewster and Carver chairs also came into use, the most popular chairs being simplified versions of English turned chairs. Chairs with slung leather seats of the Cromwellian type were used in more comfortable homes by the late years of the century. Most early beds had simple, low turned posts and plain, low headboards.

Regional characteristics appeared at an early stage and are best represented in furniture surviving from the 17th century by the contrast between the chests from the Connecticut River valley mentioned above and the more austere varieties of the Massachusetts coastal settlements—sometimes painted but characterized particularly by severe, geometric carved lozenges and friezes of overlapping lunettes. Early American furniture | Britannica.com

Regional characteristics appeared at an early stage and are best represented in furniture surviving from the 17th century by the contrast between the chests from the Connecticut River valley mentioned above and the more austere varieties of the Massachusetts coastal settlements—sometimes painted but characterized particularly by severe, geometric carved lozenges and friezes of overlapping lunettes.

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https://www.britannica.com/topic/Early-American-furniture

http://www.sofasandsectionals.com/history-of-colonial-american-furniture

http://www.furniturestyles.net/american/antique/early.html

Bauhaus Furniture

The Bauhaus was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. The German term Bauhaus—literally “construction house”was understood as meaning “School of Building”, but in spite of its name and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department during its first years of existence. Nonetheless, it was founded with the idea of creating a “total” work of art (Gesamtkunstwerk) in which all arts, including architecture, would eventually be brought together. The Bauhaus style later became one of the most influential currents in modern design, Modernist architecture and art, design and architectural education. The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.

The cabinetmaking workshop was by far the most popular at the Bauhaus. Under the direction of Marcel Breuer from 1924 to 1928, this studio re conceived the very essence of furniture, often seeking to dematerialize conventional forms such as chairs to their minimal existence. Breuer theorised that eventually chairs would become obsolete, replaced by supportive columns or air. Inspired by the extruded steel tubes of his bicycle, he experimented with metal furniture, ultimately creating lightweight, mass-producible metal chairs. Some of these chairs were deployed in the theatre of the Dessau building.

Metalworking was another popular workshop at the Bauhaus and, along with the cabinetmaking studio, was the most successful in developing design prototypes for mass production. In this studio, designers such as Marianne Brandt, Wilhelm Wagenfeld, and Christian Dell created beautiful, modern items such as lighting fixtures and tableware. Occasionally, these objects were used in the Bauhaus campus itself; light fixtures designed in the metalwork shop illuminated the Bauhaus building and some faculty housing. Brandt was the first woman to attend the metalworking studio, and replaced László Moholy-Nagy as studio director in 1928. Many of her designs became iconic expressions of the Bauhaus aesthetic. Her sculptural and geometric silver and ebony teapot, while never mass-produced, reflects both the influence of her mentor, Moholy-Nagy, and the Bauhaus emphasis on industrial forms. It was designed with careful attention to functionality and ease of use, from the non-drip spout to the heat-resistant ebony handle.

 

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/bauh/hd_bauh.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bauhaus

Ancient Egyptian Furniture

 

Ancient Egyptian Furniture

Furniture History is a fascinating subject. Learning about furniture evolution gives you a vital understanding of how the craftsmanship of furniture began. The range of styles of furniture grew with the increased knowledge of the craftsmen as new materials and techniques became available, overseas trade and the economic conditions of the country. Furniture range was also dictated by the ruling monarch of the country and the conditions of the era. All those interesting facts about furniture will be described in a new rubric at FurnitureCartBlog.

The furniture of the Old Kingdom of Egypt (2700-2200 B.C.) was largely of stone, and little interest for us. Furniture was even less important in the Middle Kingdom. But for the time of New Kingdom (1570-1090 B.C.), there are many interesting examples of furniture, especially of armchairs, which are regarded as Egypt’s real contribution to furniture.

The furniture of the New Kingdom was small, beautifully designed, and highly ornamented. Carving and wood turning were used in making this furniture. Chairs and stools were often covered with cloth or skins, and the more elaborate ones were decorated with tooled leather. Tables were square, round, or oblong. They were supported either by a pedestal or by three legs. The pedestal or the legs

were often carved to represent a bending human form, a symbol of the contempt in which the Egyptians held their slaves and captives. The tops of the tables sometimes had carved inscriptions telling of the owner’s talents or achievements. Emblems of Egyptian gods also appeared on much of the furniture. Some of the more elaborate furniture used in Egypt was made in ancient Ethiopia, where the art of inlay, or decorating by laying a design in the surface, is said to have originated. Ancient records show that this furniture was included in the tribute paid by the Ethiopians to Ramses II, the Egyptian King.

kingtutbed

The bed displays features common to ancient Egyptian beds. Notice that it has the lion paw on drum foot design of the chair.  The direction these feet point indicate the front of the bed.  As with most Egyptian beds, the head is open and the decorative piece is the footboard.  It also dips in the middle and the head end is raised higher than the foot.  The bed surface is woven through slots punched in the rails.

Source

Ancient Egypt furniture – Chair

http://cowofgold.wikispaces.com

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tutankhamun

http://robbreport.com/art-collectibles/antiques-tut-uncommon

http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo/tutankhamen-mummy.html

Ancient Egypt Artwork

 

Historical Egyptian Furniture

www.furniturestyles.net › Ancient
www.touregypt.net/featurestories/furniture.htm
https://www.metmuseum.org/pubs/bulletins/1/pdf/3258451.pdf.bannered.pdf
https://history.knoji.com/the-history-of-the-egyptian-furniture/
www.oocities.org/gpkillen/history.htm
www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/furniture.htmimages for Historical egyptian Furniture

The Egyptians were experts, as we well know from museum pieces, in marquetrydecorating furniture with inlays of wood or ivory. Royal or upper class furniture featured rare woods and elaborate inlays, such as a box from Tutankahamens tomb that is composed of an estimated 33,000 individual pieces of wooden inlay. Middle-class furniture was somewhat simpler in style and made from cheaper materials. Working class Egyptians had a full range of furniture that still had a sense of style but were made for more functional than esthetic use. Of course, very poor people might have only had mud brick benches, covered with mats, in their homes as their primary furniture.

But for those who could afford it, furniture in ancient Egypt was much more than something to use for physical comfort. It was, in addition, another outlet for artistic perfection and connection with the beauty of the natural world. In royal circles, furniture was so prized that it was often given as a diplomatic gifteither in individual pieces or whole suitesto rulers of foreign lands.

We tend to think of the Egyptians as being entirely self-sufficient, having everything they needed at their disposal for construction or artwork. But when it comes to furniture, it was a different story. “Woods of trees native to Egyptacacia, almond, fig, date and dom-palms, persea, poplar, sider, sycamore, tamarisk and willow,” writes James Sibal for Egypt Revealed magazine, “tend to have knots, poor grain or poor strength.”

So the Egyptians imported wood from other regions for their furniture. Ash, beech box, cedar elm, fir, lime maple, oak, pine, plum and yew came from Syria, Lebanon and Turkey, writes Sibal. From the south, the area known as Nubia, came African Blackwood and from Ethiopia came ebony. Carob was also imported. According to Sibal, Sneferu, founder of the 4th Dynasty, sent 40 ships to Lebanon to obtain its famous cedar wood.

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Neolithic Period

The only history google has of this period is of Skara Brae house in Orkney, Scotland, is evidence of home furnishings, i.e. a dresser containing shelves.

A range of unique stone furniture has been excavated in Skara Brae a Neolithic village, located in Orkney, Scotland. The site dates from 3100-2500 B.C.E., and, due to a shortage of wood in Orkney, the people of Skara Brae were forced to build with stone, a readily available material that could be worked easily and turned into items for use within the household. Each house shows a high degree of sophistication and was equipped with an extensive assortment of stone furniture, ranging from cupboards, dressers and beds to shelves, stone seats and limpet tanks. The stone dressers were regarded as the most important as it symbolically faces the entrance in each house and is therefore the first item seen when entering, perhaps displaying symbolic objects, including decorative artwork such as several Neolithic Carved Stone Balls also found at the site. But I think theres is many examples around the world of basic civilised families making cool furniture for them to use every day.. they used their local resources, Stone and wood.. and most often used opportunity to collect the best pieces, around Australia today you can see examples of country councils making picnic tables and lookouts of this at nice scenes…

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Jacobean Era

The Jacobean era refers to the period in English and Scottish history that coincides with the reign of James VI of Scotland (1567–1625), who also inherited the crown of England in 1603 as James I. The Jacobean era succeeds the Elizabethan era and precedes the Caroline era and specifically denotes a style of architecture, visual arts, decorative arts, and literature which predominated in that period.

The decorative arts — furniture, for example — became increasingly rich in colour, detail, and design. Materials from other parts of the world, like mother-of-pearl, were now available by world-wide trade and were used as decoration.[10] Even familiar materials, such as wood and silver, were worked more deeply in intricate and intensely three-dimensional designs.

The early Jacobean furniture period, which inspired much of the early American furniture of the pilgrims (in America Jacobean style furniture is often called Pilgrim furniture, was similar to Elizabethan furniture in that it was still largely made of oak, and of a solid, sturdy construction. Early Jacobean furniture was somewhat inward looking, not fully embracing exotic influences, and its ornamentation became less prominent and applied in a less willy-nilly, more ordered, fashion than previously, as can be seen in pictures of early carved furniture.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobean_era

http://www.furniturestyles.net/european/english/jacobean.html

https://au.pinterest.com/pin/430797520576351121/

https://au.pinterest.com/sheilamedwards/elizabethan-jacobean-william-mary-artifacts/

https://www.emaze.com/@ACWRCILL/A%C2%A0Shift-in-America

https://www.1stdibs.com/furniture/style/jacobean/

http://chestofbooks.com/home-improvement/furniture/Period/Chapter-II-Jacobean-Period-1603-1688.html

 

Rococo Historical Furniture

Rococo also known as Late Baroque, is an early to late French 18th-century artistic movement and style,  developed in the early 18th century in Paris.

Incorporating many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture and interior design.

The style was ornate and used light colours, asymmetrical designs, curves, and gold.  Unlike early Baroque, the Rococo had playful and witty themes. It is characterized by lightness, elegance, and an exuberant use of curving, natural forms in ornamentation.

Rococo covers the kind of ornament, style and design associated with Louis XV’s reign and the beginning of that of Louis XVI, it includes all types of art from around the middle of the 18th century in France.

When the term was first used in English in about 1836, it was a “colloquialism” meaning “old-fashioned”. The style received harsh criticism and was seen by some to be superficial and of poor taste.

Excellent examples of French Rococo are the Salon de Monsieur le Prince (completed 1722) in the Petit Château at Chantilly, decorated by Jean Aubert, and the salons (1732) of the Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, by Germain Boffrand.  The Rococo style was also transcended in the decorative arts. Its asymmetrical forms were quickly adapted to silver and porcelain, and French furniture of the period also displayed curving forms, naturalistic shell and floral ornament, and a more elaborate, playful use of gilt-bronze and porcelain ornamentation.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rococo

https://arthistory.knoji.com/the-history-and-origin-of-the-rococo-furniture/

https://www.britannica.com/art/Rococo-style-design

http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/s/style-guide-rococo/

Neolithic Furniture

Perhaps the first evidence of man-made furniture are examples from the Neolithic era. The best preserved and arguably the most significant example of Neolithic furnishings can be found at the Skara Brae village, located in Orkney, northern Scotland. This settlement dates back to approximately 3000BC.

Given the shortage of wood in Orkney, the people of Skara Brae made do with the only building material available to them; stone. The local stone provided the Neolithic builders with a readily available material that could be worked easily and turned into items for use within the household. It is also the reason the village is so well-preserved. As a result of this, each house was equipped with an extensive assortment of stone furniture. This ranged from cupboards, dressers and beds to shelves and limpet tanks.

Although it is perfectly possible that the dresser may have been nothing more than a simple storage unit, it seems more likely that it had an equally important symbolic purpose. In such a case, the dresser was regarded as the most important piece of furniture as it symbolically faces the entrance in each house and is therefore the first item seen when entering, perhaps displaying symbolic objects, including decorative artwork such as several Neolithic Carved Stone Balls also found at the site.

At the centre of every house, perhaps just as if not more significant than the dresser, was the hearth; a place of feasting and communing, both in a physical and spiritual sense.

Flanking the hearth are the beds. These were stone-built “boxes” that jut out into the middle of the room. The right-hand bed is always larger that the left-hand bed, which led to the theory that the each house had a specific male and female divide.

Where I got my info: